Archive for Declaration

Climate Change POST COP15 | TIME TO BE BOLD

Posted in Climate Justice Declarations from Around the World, DEMAND A REAL DEAL FOR THE NEXT COP | SIGN THE PETITION with tags , on February 14, 2010 by Cory Morningstar




The time for procrastination about climate change has long since passed; the world is in a state of emergency and further inaction is gross negligence. The actual and anticipated impacts of climate change as well as the unintended consequences of climate change, and the short-term and long-term effects that are known and yet to be known have all contributed to the state of emergency. Any denial of the state of emergency, is eclipsed by the moral imperative, and legal obligation to abide by the precautionary principle.

Solutions for the state of emergency depend upon the political will to address climate change within the complexity and interdependence of issues related to: guaranteeing human rights, including the human right to food, to drinking water, to sanitation and to health; ensuring social justice; protecting and conserving the environment and ecosystems; reducing the ecological footprint and moving away from the current over-consumptive model of development; and preventing war and conflict.

While the threat of climate change has been obvious to most scientists for five decades, the industrialised world – the major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions – has refused to acknowledge, let alone address the urgency of the crisis. Industrialised nations have been heavily influenced by financial, media and industrial corporations, corporate front groups, industry-funded academics, as well as by citizens that deny the science, all of which have tried to cast doubt on the reality of human-caused climate change.

As stated in the precautionary principle in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing methods to address the threat. All member states of the United Nations have a legal obligation to abide by the precautionary principle. There is consensus among scientists that the threat to climate change is caused by anthropogenic activity, and that there is a global emergency. THIS CONSENSUS IS SUFFICIENT to justify invoking the precautionary principle.

Corporate-controlled states have failed not only to address the urgency of the crisis by enacting effective legislation, but also to even seriously consider – let alone invest in – the resources needed to protect their own coasts and citizens as well as the poorest and most vulnerable states and people from the current and future impacts of climate change.
In addition, those who have created and most benefited from the carbon economy have failed to consider the need to assist the low-lying states and small island developing states that have already been impacted by climate change. They have also failed to acknowledge any responsibility, or to provide compensation for the widespread displacement of people resulting from climate change. These impacts are all considered externalities by policy-makers who continue to subsidize fossil fuels while ignoring the burgeoning economic health, environmental and social costs of climate change.

In Copenhagen, rather than adopting a minimalist lowest common denominator approach to setting climate targets and time frames, member states of the United Nations must acknowledge the science of dwindling glaciers, increasing atmospheric turbulence, desertification, ocean warming and acidification and rising sea levels, and adopt strong, effective, and mandatory targets and time frames to address the urgency.

The UNFCCC is ratified by 192 countries – representing near universal membership – it commands near universal support and its legitimacy is unquestioned. The UNFCCC stated: “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere must be at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. This level equates to a target of below 1°C, which is the point at which global systems on land, water and air will be so affected as to create vicious feedback cycles and destabilise many ecosystems and human societies.

The Global Humanitarian Forum Climate Change Human Impact report that summarised data including that issued by WHO on the impacts states that in 2009, 325 million people were seriously affected by climate change (based on negative health outcomes), and there were 303,000 deaths as a result of climate change. It predicts that in 2030, 660 million people a year will be affected by climate change and that 471,500 people will die from climate change. 98 % of those affected and 99% of deaths come from the developing world. The start year for the data is 1980 in terms of impacts. That equates to nearly 13 million deaths by 2030, and billions affected. This period is merely the start of the climate change impact. Without action the deaths will increase exponentially after climate change takes grip in post 2030. This disregard for the lives of others is paramount to criminal negligence. **

Because of the global urgency, there must be the political will to strive to contain the rise in temperature to less than 1°C above pre-industrial levels. and strict time frames must be imposed, so that overall global emissions will begin to be reversed as of 2010. There must be a global target of 30% below 1990 levels by 2015, 50% below by 2020, 75% by 2030, 85% by 2040 and 100% below by 2050, while adhering to the precautionary principle, the differentiated responsibility principle *, and the fair and just transition principle. ***Under the Framework Convention, every state signatory incurred the obligation to conserve carbon sinks; thus the destruction of sinks, including deforestation and elimination of bogs must end.

Most scientific work today has become tied to the failing negotiations and is based on keeping the risk of a rise in temperature above 2 °C at about 5-40%. The proposal submitted, here, by the Global Compliance Research Project is based on trying to avoid a rise in temperature above 1 °C and returning atmospheric CO2 back to 278ppm in line with the obligations outlined in the UNFCCC by 2050 and bringing risk down to a minimum.

If the dangerous level is to be avoided, emission pathways to eliminate CO2 must arrive at the pre-industrial level of 278 ppm at least by 2050.

Currently under consideration as a target in brackets

[Only if the CO2 levels are not beyond 278 ppm will the rise in temperature be maintained below 1°C which has been assessed by many scientists as being the danger level. To succeed in being below the dangerous 1°c, member states of the United Nations must commit to  remove  between 1105.62GTCO2 and 1842GT CO2 from the atmosphere (see table 1). The initial removal phase should start in 2010 and run to 2020, with a research program to determine the required GT GHG to be removed to achieve 278ppm of CO2 by 2050 and socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound methods of CO2 reduction. By the latest in 2020, between 36.85 GT CO2 yr-1 and 61.42 GT CO2 yr-1 must be removed. In the period 2010-2020 natural carbon sinks must be restored.

Emission reductions should be based on global caps for emissions of GHG and must follow a smooth path as shown in Graphs 1, 2 and 3. Carbon elimination must not be used to offset reduction targets, and must be done through socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound methods. Greenhouse Gas Emissions resulting from Destructive land use practices including in the rural, the urban and peri-urban environment must end. Deforestation must end and developing nations whose development will be affected must be compensated. There must be caps on yearly emissions of GHG as per table 1 and graphs 2 and 3 and as required for the 1°C target. Current research only shows cumulative emission budgets for a 2 °C target, the targets in this submission are based on trying to not be above a 1 °C target.] ****

The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of developing countries and of present and future generations. All states must embark immediately on time-bound phasing out of fossil fuels and of subsidies for fossil fuel. The unconventional extraction of oil from Bitumen, such as in the process in the tar/oil sands, is a major contribution to greenhouse gas and must be prohibited. In addition there must be a phase-out of biofuel and nuclear energy and an end to the subsidizing of biofuel and of nuclear energy, and a time-bound commitment to conservation, and to subsidizing and investing in socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. options, that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The transition to a zero carbon society should meet the needs of all nations and people in an equitable fashion and should be based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, human rights and social justice. To achieve this end the industrialized states and major greenhouse gas producers must be prepared to enter into binding obligations not only through targets and time frames but also through funding mechanisms. This fund could be named Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC, and it would fund socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound energy renewable energy, transportation, agriculture and forestry. This fund would replace the GEF as the main source of funding for the UNFCCC.

The dominant greenhouse gas-producing and emitting states should be compelled to finance this international fund. Funds traditionally distributed not only through the GEF but also through the Bretton Woods institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and additional bilateral funds, such as those in the German Fund for International Climate Initiative, should be channelled through this global fund. This fund would be indispensable for preventing climate change, and for achieving the objectives of the UNFCCC.

Additional funds must be derived from reallocation of global military expenses, including budgets and arms production and sales. Part of this fund could be allocated to compensate states damaged in any way by the failure of industrialized states to discharge obligations under the UNFCCC and other legal obligations.

Other budgetary sources for this Fund would be the redirecting of subsidies from socially inequitable and environmentally unsound non-sustainable energy to socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.

In addition, measures to alleviate the impacts of climate change must include the cancellation of the outstanding debt of developing states, and the implementation of the minimal long-standing commitment of 0.7% of GDP being transferred to Overseas Development (ODA). The ODA must serve the needs not of the developed states but of the developing states. Any shortfall in funding should be bolstered by increased ODA by nations that inequitably gain an advantage from historical emissions or reduction scenarios that are not in line with the principle of equity.

All these funding measures could only just begin to compensate for the “emissions debt” owed, by the developed states to the developing states.

The impact, of climate change on the world’s poor, on indigenous peoples, vulnerable communities, and especially low-lying states will be the greatest, and they must be assisted by Industrial states, which have a legal and moral imperative, to provide funds for socially equitable and renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.

In addition, major greenhouse gas-producing states must be forced to implement the actions that would discharge the obligations incurred when they signed and ratified the UNFCCC (provisions of the UNFCCC have become international peremptory norms and as such are binding) and be forced to repay the emission debt. Historic emissions should be calculated and an assessment made of the degree of dereliction of duty in the implementation of the UNFCCC. From these assessments, provisions must be made to compensate the states that have been most damaged by the failure, of the major greenhouse gas emitting states, to discharge obligations under the Convention. In such cases, a fund should be set up to assist vulnerable states in taking delinquent states to the International Court of Justice.

“Market-based” or “market centre” approaches, which are being proposed by developed states must be opposed because they will serve neither the needs of developing states nor the objectives of the UNFCCC

The mandate of the Commission on Sustainable Development has been eroded. Its mandate was originally to ensure effective follow-up to Agenda 21, and other UNCED obligations and commitments. The Commission on Sustainable Development, in light of the failures of its current format, should be upgraded to a Council, which would be able deal with new or emerging environmental threats, and with on-going threats, such as climate change, which requires continuous intervention. Also too often at the Commission on Sustainable Development, serious polices, which would address the urgency are thwarted by the requirement to reach consensus, and serious consideration must be given to a different negotiation process and requirements.

Entrenched immovable national interests that have impeded the Commission on Sustainable Development must be prevented from blocking the adoption, in the UN General Assembly, of a strong legally binding agreement on climate change, Article 18 of the Charter of the United Nations reads: “Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security.” Undoubtedly, the impact of climate change could be deemed to fall under this category. In Copenhagen, given the urgency of the issue of climate change, and its potential effects on the global population and on the political, economic, ecological and social global systems, the requirement for consensus must be waived, and a binding agreement on all states will be deemed to exist, if 66 % of the states concur. It is possible that a majority of the member states could agree to a strong legally binding “Copenhagen protocol” to the UNFCCC. A strong Protocol to the UNFCCC could then be used against the delinquent states, and a case could be taken to the International Court of Justice under the UNFCCC, which has been signed and ratified by 192 states, even most of the delinquent states including Canada and the US, have signed and ratified the UNFCCC.

In addition, the practice of anglocentricity must end, and full translation in the six official languages must be provided, not only in the plenary but also in all working and negotiating groups. In the working groups and in the plenary, the disproportion of interventions and domination by the umbrella groups and individual nations must no longer be permitted.

* Lack of IPCC Updated Report

The last Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s report is from 2007 and that much of the research could be as over four years old. Most recent scientific evidence indicates that the impact of climate change is happening much more rapidly than expected. Apart from the serious concerns about the emerging data the fact that the new IPCC report is due to be issued in the start of 2010 after Copenhagen is troubling.

** Canadian common law provides useful guidance. Environmental negligence suits focus on compensation for loss caused by unreasonable conduct that damages legally protected interests. Unreasonable conduct means doing something that a prudent or reasonable person would not do, or failing to do something that a reasonable person would do. The plaintiff must establish certain key elements of the tort— cause in fact and proximate cause, damages, legal duty, and breach of the standard of care. Note that fault may be found even in the case of unintended harm if it stems from unreasonable conduct.

The Criminal Code (Section 219) is even clearer that lack of intent to harm is no defence if damage results from conscious acts performed in careless disregard for others: “Everyone is criminally negligent who (a) in doing anything, or (b) in omitting to do anything that it is his duty to do, shows wanton or reckless disregard for the lives or safety of other persons” (where ‘duty’ means a duty imposed by law). Significantly, Section 222(5)(b) states that “a person commits homicide when, directly or indirectly, by any means, he causes the death of a human being, by being negligent (emphasis added).”

(Dr. Bill Rees, Is Canada Guilty of Criminal Negligence?)

** The differentiated responsibility

Developed nations have a duty to abide by the differentiated responsibility principle. At the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) every member state adopted Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration. This principle states that:

States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem. In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit to sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command. (Principle 7, Rio Declaration)

This principle was also reaffirmed in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Acknowledging that the global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions,

Given that principle 7 of the Rio Declaration was adopted by all states, and that the similar principle in the preamble of the UNFCCC was affirmed by 192 State, the principle can be deemed a peremptory norm and thus legally binding on all states.

Thus when percentages are referred to in this Climate Change Statement, the assumption is that the burden for the reduction targets must fall on developed states including from their overseas corporate resource extraction. The extraterritorialism excuse, by which developed states argue that they cannot impose strict control over their corporations that function in developing states can no longer hold.

The Global Humanitarian Forum president and former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan indicate that 50 of the world’s poorest countries collectively produce less than one per cent of the global greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change. These countries have undoubtedly been disproportionally affected by climate change, and the responsibility must be on the shoulders of the developed states.

*** The Fair and Just Transition Principle

The Fair and Just transition principle must be instituted to assist workers and communities in the transition from unsustainable to sustainable development. This principle holds that workers who are engaged in unsustainable practices that are harmful to human health and the environment, will not oppose the transition to socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound practices (SEESS), providing society offers them a fair and just transition to (SEESS).

>> Preamble


For a People’s Protocol and a People’s Movement on Climate Change (A Summary)

Posted in Climate Justice Declarations from Around the World with tags , on February 14, 2010 by Cory Morningstar

Injustice lies at the root of the climate crisis. A tiny minority of the world’s population based in the advanced capitalist countries in the North is primarily responsible for accelerating climate change that is already inflicting more death, destruction and suffering to millions of the world’s poor and disadvantaged.

In their relentless pursuit of profits, Northern corporations have burned vast and increasing amounts of fossil fuels and destroyed forests to feed energy and inputs into production, dumping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at levels that is now warming the planet and disrupting the climate. The global economic system involves the appropriation and lopsided use by a powerful global elite of the planet’s shared resources, and the disempowerment and dispossession of the majority of the world’s people. This basic social process is behind two centuries of profit-oriented capitalist growth. It bequeathed increasing prosperity and power to the Global North and private corporations through the over-exploitation of natural resources, and forced poverty, colonialism, and underdevelopment upon millions of people, who now suffer the hardest impacts of climate change despite having no responsibility for it. In the last 30 years, under the banner of free market globalization, and with the help of the IMF, World Bank, and WTO, Northern-based transnational corporations have expanded their power over Southern economies and resources, and intensified their pollution of the atmosphere and destruction of the environment.

Efforts for climate action have hitherto failed to stem the causes of climate change and bring justice to the poor and peoples of the South. Northern governments and corporations have not only refused to fully honor their historical obligation to reduce emissions and support climate actions in the South, but have exploited the climate crisis to enforce false solutions that create new profit opportunities, expand their control over natural resources, and exacerbate global warming. Powerful Northern and corporate interests have undermined the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as evidenced by its Kyoto Protocol. The same powers are sabotaging current negotiations for a just post-2012 climate regime, as they stall on committing emissions cuts that the scientific evidence requires, as well as sufficient funding to cover the costs of adaptation and mitigation in developing countries. They are also aggressively pushing for an agreement that would require developing countries to take on binding emissions cuts, or worse, abandon multilaterally-determined binding emissions commitments altogether.

We, the people, need a platform that raises real solutions, registers our voices, and articulates our demand for social justice. Real solutions go beyond “business-as-usual” technology- and market fixes along which powerful interests have set and confined the climate agenda. Real solutions require the reallocation of the world’s resources between and within nations for equity and social justice; the reversal of neoliberal globalization; the restoration of people’s sovereignty over resources, economies, and institutions; and the compensation by corporations and the Global North of the poor and peoples of the South for the losses they are forced to bear as victims both of climate change and the social system that is behind it. Socially just solutions also make for scientifically and ecologically sound ones. Using natural resources equitably and democratically, and supplanting the drive for private profit with the fulfillment of social needs as the principal economic goal will reset human society’s relationship with the environment on a far more sustainable path.

We need a people’s movement to advance our solutions. Solving the climate crisis requires far-reaching social transformation. Unequal patterns of power behind such injustices as poverty, hunger, exploitation, and colonialism are the same ones that have caused ecological destruction and climate change. And as with other injustices, the climate crisis and its roots can only be dealt with through political struggles by the people. We need a grassroots-based people’s movement on climate change to promote the people’s agenda on climate action and social transformation, fight for solutions that secure justice and democratic rights for the people, and challenge efforts from powerful elite and corporate interests that seek to divert and undermine our movement.


Posted in Climate Justice Declarations from Around the World with tags , on February 14, 2010 by Cory Morningstar

The Declaration:


We, the Member States of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), meeting in New York

this 21st day of September,

Gravely concernedthat climate change poses the most serious threat to our survival and

viability, and, that it undermines our efforts to achieve sustainable development goals and

threatens our very existence;

Alarmed that emerging scientific evidence shows that the effects of human-induced climate

change are worse than previously projected and that the impacts of climate change which we

are already experiencing including sea level rise, more frequent and extreme weather events,

ocean acidification, coral bleaching, coastal erosion, and changing precipitation patterns, will

further intensify;

Greatly disturbedthat despite the mitigation commitments made by Parties to the United

Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol,

especially those of the developed countries, global emissions continue to increase, leading to

rapidly accelerating impacts, accompanied by costs and burdens that are beyond the ability of

many, but, especially the small island developing states (SIDS) and other particularly vulnerable

countries, to control;

Profoundly disappointedby the lack of apparent ambition within the international climate change

negotiations to protect SIDS and other particularly vulnerable countries, their peoples, culture,

land and ecosystems from the impacts of climate change and our further concern at the slow

pace of these negotiations;

1. Now therefore, we, call upon the international community, with the developed countries

taking the lead, to undertake urgent, ambitious and decisive action to significantly reduce

emissions of all green house gases, including fast action strategies, and to support SIDS,

and other particularly vulnerable countries, in their efforts to adapt to the adverse impacts of

climate change, including through the provision of increased levels of financial and

technological resources.

2. We underscore that adaptation must be an urgent and immediate global priority.

3. We firmly maintain that the UNFCCC is the primary international, intergovernmental forum

for negotiating the global response to climate change.

4. We reaffirm the principles enshrined in the Rio Declaration and the UNFCCC and its Kyoto

Protocol, in particular, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and

respective capabilities having regard to national circumstances, and, the precautionary


5. We urge all Parties to work with an increased sense of urgency and purpose towards an

ambitious, comprehensive and meaningful outcome that preserves the legal nature of the

international climate change regime and the existing commitments under the UNFCCC and

its Kyoto Protocol.

6. We assert thus that the outcome to be concluded at the fifteenth session of the Conference

of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in

Copenhagen in 2009 should inter alia:

a. Use the avoidance of adverse climate change impacts on SIDS as one of the key

benchmarks for assessing its appropriateness, consistent with the precautionary

principle and the principle of prevention;

b. Adopt a package of mitigation activities, now, up to and beyond 2012 that provides for:

i. long-term stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at well below

350ppm CO2-equivalent levels;

ii. global average surface temperature increases to be limited to well below 1.5° C

above pre-industrial levels;

iii. global greenhouse gas emissions to peak by 2015 and decline thereafter;

iv. reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions by more than 85% below 1990

levels by 2050

v. Annex I parties to the UNFCCC to reduce their collective GHG emissions by more

than 45% below 1990 levels by 2020, and more than 95% below 1990 levels by

2050, given their historical responsibility;

vi. A significant deviation from business as usual by developing countries through

measurable, reportable and verifiable nationally appropriate mitigation actions in

the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology,

financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner.

c. Provide SIDS with new, additional, predictable, transparent and adequate sources of

grant-based financing to fully meet the adaptation needs of these particularly vulnerable

countries, and ensure for SIDS that access is timely, direct, prioritized and simplified.

d. Call for an urgent and significant scaling up of the provision of financial resources and

investment that is adequate, predictable and sustainable to support action on mitigation

in developing country Parties for the enhanced implementation of national mitigation

strategies; including positive incentives, the mobilization of public- and private-sector

funding and investment and facilitation of carbon-friendly investment choices.

e. Ensure that renewable energy and energy efficiency form essential pillars of future

mitigation actions by all countries, taking into account national circumstances.

f. Establish a mechanism to address loss and damage from climate change comprised of a

disaster risk component, insurance, and compensation funds, to help SIDS manage the

financial and economic risks arising from climate impacts; to assist in the rapid recovery

and rehabilitation from climate related extreme weather events and to address

unavoidable damage and loss associated with the adverse effects of climate change.

g. Provide support to SIDS to enhance their capacities to respond to the challenges

brought on by climate change and to access the technologies that will be required to

undertake needed mitigation actions and to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate

change, noting the obligations of Annex 1 countries under the UNFCCC in this regard;

7. In our voluntary efforts to defeat deforestation and increase carbon sequestration, finance,

technology and capacity development is necessary to underpin a step-wise process for

reducing emissions and increasing carbon sequestration through the conservation and

sustainable management of forest crops which are good carbon dioxide sequestrators.

Based on national circumstances, a well designed REDD Plus instrument will require

resource mobilization from a variety of sources, including public, private and market-based,

as appropriate1, that employ robust methodological standards for measurable, reportable

and verifiable actions. Robust environmental integrity will need to be maintained if a REDD

mechanism is linked to the international carbon markets.

8. Acknowledging the portfolio of technologies identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on

Climate Change to achieve lower stabilization levels, including hydropower, solar, wind,

geothermal and bioenergy and determined to avail ourselves of such technologies as

appropriate and based on their feasibility and applicability, we encourage, where applicable,

national, regional and international efforts for consideration of a process to overcome

technical, economic and policy barriers with a view to facilitating the development and

commercialization of appropriate and affordable low- and zero- emission technologies.

9. We further recognize that the inclusion of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is potentially

an important mitigation option for achieving the ambitious emission reduction targets being

supported by AOSIS and urge the development of a program of work on Carbon Capture

and Storage in order to resolve related issues.

1 Tuvalu expressed a reservation on the reference to market-based sources.

10. We also emphasize that there is an urgent need to consider and address the security

implications and the human dimensions of climate change, including where necessary,

initiatives for preparing communities for relocation.

11. We underscore that while SIDS contribute the least to global emissions, and have limited

human, financial and technical resources, our nations continue to take significant actions

towards the reduction of our own emissions including through regional and inter-regional

energy initiatives.

12. We also recognize the need to reinforce the UNFCCC process by calling on the big emitters

to agree to produce enough clean energy to attain the targets of limiting temperature rise to

1.5 degree Celsius and 350 parts per million of atmospheric greenhouse gas


13. Finally, we express our support for the establishment of the Headquarters of the UNFCCC

Adaptation Fund Board in Barbados.

14. We, the Member States of AOSIS, strongly emphasize the importance of urgent progress

towards a fair and meaningful Copenhagen outcome which, through safeguarding the most

vulnerable countries, ensures a truly shared and sustainable global vision for our present

and future generations.


The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is a coalition of small island and low-lying coastal countries that share similar development challenges and concerns about the environment, especially their vulnerability to the adverse effects of global climate change. It functions primarily as an ad hoc lobby and negotiating voice for small island developing States (SIDS) within the United Nations system.

AOSIS has a membership of 42 States and observers, drawn from all oceans and regions of the world: Africa, Caribbean, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Pacific and South China Sea. Thirty-seven are members of the United Nations, close to 28 percent of developing countries, and 20 percent of the UN’s total membership. Together, SIDS communities constitute some five percent of the global population.

Member States of AOSIS work together primarily through their New York diplomatic Missions to the United Nations. AOSIS functions on the basis of consultation and consensus. Major policy decisions are taken at ambassadorial-level plenary sessions. The Alliance does not have a formal charter. There is no regular budget, nor a secretariat. With the Permanent Representative of Saint Lucia as its current chairman, AOSIS operates, as it did under previous chairmanships, out of the chairman’s Mission to the United Nations.

AOSIS’s first chairman was Ambassador Robert Van Lierop of Vanuatu (1991-1994), followed by Ambassador Annette des Iles of Trinidad and Tobago (1994-1997), Ambassador Tuiloma Neroni Slade of Samoa (1997-2002), Ambassador Jagdish Koonjul of Mauritius (2002-2005), Ambassador Enele Sopoaga of Tuvalu (acting chairman 2005-2006), Ambassador Julian R. Hunte of Saint Lucia (2006), Ambassador Angus Friday of Grenada (2006 – 2009), and the present chairman Ambassador Dessima Williams of Grenada.


Declaration from Maldives Summit – 11 nations pledge carbon neutrality

Posted in Climate Justice Declarations from Around the World with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 14, 2010 by Cory Morningstar

Declaration of the Climate Vulnerable Forum

We, Heads of State, Ministers and representatives of Government from Africa, Asia, Caribbean and the Pacific, representing some of the countries most vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change:

Alarmedat the pace of change to our Earth caused by human-induced climate change, including accelerating melting and loss of ice from Antarctica, Greenland, the Himalayas, Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya, acidification of the world’s oceans due to rising CO2 concentrations, increasingly intense tropical cyclones, more damaging and intense drought and floods, including Glacial Lakes Outburst Floods, in many regions and higher levels of sea-level rise than estimated just a few years ago, risks changing the face of the planet and threatening coastal cities, low lying areas, mountainous regions and vulnerable countries the world over;

Assertingthat anthropogenic climate change poses an existential threat to our nations, our cultures and to our way of life, and thereby undermines the internationally-protected human rights of our people – including the right to sustainable development, right to life, the right to self-determination and the right of a people not to be deprived of its own means of subsistence, as well as principles of international law that oblige all states to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction;

Consciousthat while our nations lie at the climate front-line and will disproportionately feel the impacts of global warming, in the end climate change will threaten the sustainable development and, ultimately, the survival of all States and peoples – the fate of the most vulnerable will be the fate of the world; and convinced that our acute vulnerability not only allows us to perceive the threat of climate change more clearly than others, but also provides us with the clarity of vision to understand the steps that must be taken to protect the Earth’s climate system and the determination to see the job done;

Recallingthat the UNFCCC is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change;

Desirousof building upon the commitment of leaders at the recent United Nations High-Level Summit on Climate Change in New York in addressing the needs of those countries most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change as well as other political commitments, including the AOSIS Declaration and the African Common Position;

Underlining the urgency of concluding an ambitious, fair and effective global legal agreement at COP15 in Copenhagen;

Gravely concernedat reports of a downgrading of expectations for COP15 and calling therefore for a redoubling of efforts – including through the attendance in Copenhagen, at Head of State- or Head of Government-level, of all States, and especially of major industrialised nations and all major emerging economies;

Emphasisingthat developed countries bear the overwhelming historic responsibility for causing anthropogenic climate change and must therefore take the lead in responding to the challenge across all four building blocks of an enhanced international climate change regime – namely mitigation, adaption, technology and finance – that builds-upon the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol;

Taking accountof their historic responsibility as well as the need to secure climate justice for the world’s poorest and most vulnerable communities, developed countries must commit to legally-binding and ambitious emission reduction targets consistent with limiting global average surface warming to well below 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and long-term stabilisation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at well below 350ppm, and that to achieve this the agreement at COP15 UNFCCC should include a goal of peaking global emissions by 2015 with a sharp decline thereafter towards a global reduction of 85% by 2050;

Emphasisingthat protecting the climate system is the common responsibility of all humankind, that the Earth’s climate system has a limited capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions, and that action is required by all countries on the basis of common but differentiated responsibilities, respective capabilities, and the precautionary principle;

Underscoringthat maintaining carbon-intensive modes of production established in 19th Century Europe will incur enormous social and economic cost in the medium- and long-term, whereas shifting to a carbon-neutral future based on green technology and low-carbon energy creates wealth, jobs, new economic opportunities, and local co-benefits in terms of health and reduced pollution;

Convinced that those countries which take the lead in embracing this future will be the winners of the 21st Century;

Expressingour determination, as vulnerable States, to demonstrate leadership on climate change by leading the world into the low-carbon and ultimately carbon-neutral economy, but recognising that we cannot achieve this goal on our own;

Now therefore, Declareour determination, as low-emitting countries that are acutely vulnerable to climate change, to show moral leadership on climate change through actions as well as words, by acting now to commence greening our economies as our contribution towards achieving carbon neutrality,

Affirmthat this will enhance the objectives of achieving sustainable development, reducing poverty and attaining the internationally agreed development goals including the Millennium Development Goals,

Call uponall other countries to follow the moral leadership shown by the Republic of Maldives by voluntarily committing to achieving carbon-neutrality, Assert that the achievement of carbon neutrality by developing countries will be extremely difficult given their lack of resources and capacity and pressing adaptation challenges, without

external financial, technological and capability-building support from developed countries, Declare that, irrespective of the effectiveness of mitigation actions, significant adverse changes in the global climate are now inevitable and are already taking place, and thus Parties to the UNFCCC must also include, in the COP15 outcome document, an ambitious agreement on adaptation finance which should prioritise the needs of the most vulnerable countries, especially in the near-term,

Call upondeveloped countries to provide public money amounting to at least 1.5% of their gross domestic product, in addition to innovative sources of finance, annually by 2015 to assist developing countries make their transition to a climate resilient low-carbon economy.

This grant-based finance must be predictable, sustainable, transparent, new and additional – on top of developed country commitments to deliver 0.7% of their Gross National Income as Overseas Development Assistance,

Underlinethat financing for mitigation and adaptation, under the authority of the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC, should be on the basis of direct access to implement country-led national Low-Carbon Development Plans and Climate Resilient Development Strategies, and the process to allocate and deliver the finance must be accessible, transparent, consensual, accountable, results-orientated and should prioritise the needs of the most vulnerable countries,

Furtherunderline that fundamental principles and issues relating to the survival of peoples and preservation of sovereign rights are non-negotiable, and should be embedded in the Copenhagen legal agreement,

Call onParties to the UNFCCC to also consider and address the health, human rights and security implications of climate change, including the need to prepare communities for relocation, to protect persons displaced across borders due to climate change-related impacts, and the need to create a legal framework to protect the human rights of those left stateless as a result of climate change,

Inviteother vulnerable countries to endorse this Declaration,

Decideto hold a second meeting of the Climate Vulnerable Forum in Kiribati in 2010 to take forward this initiative, to further raise awareness of the vulnerabilities and actions of vulnerable countries to combat climate change, and to amplify their voice in international negotiations. In this context, request support from the UN system to assist the most vulnerable developing countries take action in pursuit of this Declaration.

Adopted in Malé, Maldives, 10th November 2009

Adopted by:












Declaration of the CVF FINAL.pdf

System change — not climate change | A people’s declaration from Klimaforum 09

Posted in Climate Justice Declarations from Around the World with tags , on February 14, 2010 by Cory Morningstar

System change — not climate change (full text)

A people’s declaration from Klimaforum 09,

Organizations & Individuals – Please Sign On until March 2010

December 10, 2009

1. Preamble

There are solutions to the climate crisis. What people and the planet need is a just and sustainable transition of our societies to a form that will ensure the rights of life and dignity of all people and deliver a more fertile planet and more fulfilling lives to present and future generations. A transition based on democratic principles of solidarity, especially for the most vulnerable, non-discrimination, gender equality, equity and sustainability, acknowledging that we are part of nature, which we love and respect. To address the climate crisis, however, awareness creation and determined actions adhering to a rights-based framework are required. The nations have an obligation to cooperate internationally to ensure respect for human rights everywhere in the world according to the Charter of the United Nations.

We, participating peoples, communities and all organisations at the Klimaforum09 in Copenhagen, call upon every person, organisation, government and institution, including the United Nations (UN), to contribute to this necessary transition. It will be a challenging task. The crisis of today has economic, social, environmental, geopolitical and ideological aspects interacting with and enforcing each other as well as the climate crisis. This very moment of conjunction of crises — climate , energy, financial, food and water crises, among others — urges us to unite and transform the dominant social and economic system as well as global governance, which blocks necessary solutions to the climate crisis. For this reason, a movement from below is called upon to act now.

Environmental and climate debts must be paid. No false, dangerous and short-term solutions should be promoted and adopted, such as nuclear power, agro-fuels, offsetting, carbon capture and storage (CCS), biochar, geo-engineering and carbon trading. Instead we should implement a truly sustainable transition built on clean, safe and renewable resources and energy conservation. We welcome alliances across social movements and sectors, representing all ages, genders, ethnicities, faiths, communities and nationalities.

We want to take the future into our own hands by building a strong and popular movement of youth, women, men, workers, peasants, fisher folks, indigenous peoples, people of colour, urban, and rural social groups which is able to act on all levels of society to deal with environmental degradation and climate change. We call for a new international economic order and support a strong and democratic UN as opposed to G8, G20 or other closed groups of powerful countries.

2. The challenge, as we see it

The concentration of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) in the atmosphere is already so high, that the climate system has been brought out of balance. The CO2 concentration and global temperatures have increased more rapidly in the last 50 years and will rise even faster in the coming decades. This adds to a multitude of other serious ecological imbalances, the impacts of which threatens the lives and livelihoods of the people of the world, most acutely, the impoverished people and other vulnerable groups.

The imbalance of the climate system leads to greater and more frequent extremes of heat and rainfall patterns, tropical cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons, extreme flooding and droughts, loss of biodiversity, landslides, rising sea levels, shortage of drinking water, shorter growing seasons, lower yields, lost or deteriorated agricultural land, decreased agricultural production, losses of livestock, extinction of ecosystems, diminished fish stocks, among others.

These phenomena are resulting in food crisis, famine, illness, death, displacement and the extinction of sustainable ways of life. Interacting with this is the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), monoculture farming and industrialised agriculture strongly promoted by corporations that seriously threaten the stability and diversity of ecosystems. This also marginalises and impoverishes small-scale farmers and undermines food sovereignty. Corporate-controlled agriculture is geared to meet global demand for overconsumption especially in the global North rather than for local basic needs. The same can be said about modern industrial fisheries, intensive forestry and mining which destroys ecosystems, diminishes biodiversity and destroys the life and livelihoods of local communities. These effects of climate change together with growing social inequalities and severe impacts on our common environment are already devastating the lives of millions of people as well as their local communities. However, we — the people — are not prepared to accept this fact as our fate. That is why there are fast-growing popular movements determined to defend their livelihoods and stand up against those forces and causes, which have led us on to this ultimately suicidal route of environmental destruction.

In Asia, Africa, Middle East, Oceania and South and Central America, as well as the periphery of North America and Europe, popular movements are rising to confront the exploitation of their land by foreign interests and to regain control over their own resources. Anew type of activism has revitalised the environmental movements, leading to a wide variety of protests and actions against mining, big dams, deforestation, coal-fired plants, air travel and the building of new roads among others. There is a growing awareness about the need to change the present economic paradigm in a very fundamental way. Among various movements, alternative ways of life are proliferating. At the same time it is becoming evident to the public that the present holders of power are unwilling to face and deal with the threats of climate change and environmental degradation. The so-called strategy of “green growth” or “sustainable growth” has turned out to be an excuse for pursuing the same basic model of economic development, that is one of the root causes of environmental destruction and the climate crisis.

3. The causes, as we see them

The immediate and primary cause of human-induced climate change is an unprecedented emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere originating from the increasing burning of fossil fuels from industry, commerce, transport and military purposes, to mention a few but significant sources. Other important drivers of climate change are deforestation, extractive industries, forest degradation — excluding Indigenous people’s sustainable practice of shifting cultivations — disturbance of water cycle, expanding areas through land grabbing for industrial agriculture, increased industrial meat-production and other types of unsustainable use of natural resources.

Uneven control and ownership over resources

These immediate causes are the results of an unsustainable global economic system built on unequal access to and control over the planet’s limited resources and the benefits that accrue from their use. This system is premised on the appropriation of local, national and planetary commons by local and global elites. What has been praised as great strides in technology, production and human progress has in fact precipitated global ecological and development disasters. Still, a privileged global elite engages in reckless profit-driven production and grossly excessive consumption while a very large proportion of humanity is mired in poverty with merely survival and subsistence consumption, or even less. This is the situation not only in countries of the global South but also in the global North. The world’s largest transnational corporations (TNCs) based mainly in the Northern countries and tax havens, but with expanding operations, have long been at the forefront of these excesses.

The competition among global corporations and rich nations for resources and greater market shares, as well as trade agreements and treaties, have led to a neo-colonial suppression of Southern peoples, denying them rightful ownership and control of their resources. The World Trade Organization (WTO) and international financial institutions, as well as the European Union (EU) and United States (US) using bilateral trade agreements, are increasing the privatisation and commoditisation of public resources, intensifying the plunder of natural resources of underdeveloped countries and imposing conditions that increase their dependence.

Prevailing patterns of thought and alternatives

The development model promoted by these institutions is not only a question of “economics’.” The prevailing economic paradigm is strongly related to the system of thought, which is based on an imagination of the human being as “economic man”. This ideology is reinforced by corporate media and marketing firms which promote egoism, competition, material consumption and boundless accumulation of private wealth in utter disregard of the social and ecological consequences of such behaviour. This system of thought is intimately intertwined with patterns of patriarchy and paternalism.

If we really want to address this crisis, we need to recognise that the human species is part of both nature and society and cannot exist without either. Therefore if humanity is to survive, we need to respect the integrity of Mother Earth and strive for harmony with nature and for peace within and between cultures.

We are at once citizens of different nations and of one world. Everyone shares responsibility for the present and future well-being of the human family and the larger living world. The spirit of human solidarity and kinship with all life is strengthened when we live according to the principle of ”One among many.”`

4. A just and sustainable transition

It is clear that solving the climate crisis requires far-reaching transformations, which are currently excluded from the agenda of policy makers in governments and multilateral institutions. People are calling for system change , not “business-as-usual” and the uncritical use of technology and market fixes along which powerful interests have set and confined the climate agenda.

Peoples’ movements are not lacking alternative visions for society and concrete steps that must be taken in order to move towards a sustainable future while addressing the climate , water, food and economic crises at the same time. Such a sustainable transition will begin by many different initiatives. Some of these steps towards sustainable transition are:

Food sovereignty and ecological agriculture: Uphold the rights of people, communities, and countries to determine their own systems of production including farming, fishing, food, forestry and land policies, which are ecologically, socially, economically and culturally appropriate to the circumstances. Peoples’, especially women’s access to and control over productive resources such as land, seeds and water must be respected and guaranteed. Agricultural production must rely principally on local knowledge, appropriate technology and ecologically sustainable techniques that bind CO2 in the diverse and native plant systems, bind water and return more nutrients to the soil, than was taken out. Food and agricultural production must be primarily geared towards meeting local needs, encourage self-sufficiency, promote local employment, and minimise resource use, waste and GHG emissions in the process.

Democratic ownership and control of economy: The reorganisation of society’s productive units around more democratic forms of ownership and management, in order to meet people’s basic needs such as employment creation, access to water, housing, land, health care and education, food sovereignty and ecological sustainability. Public policy must make sure that the financial system serves public interests and channel resources for the sustainable transformation of industry, agriculture and services. Energy sovereignty: A dramatic reduction of energy consumption especially in the unjustly enriched countries combined with a blend of renewable and public energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, mini-hydro, wave and the development of off-the-grid electricity distribution to secure energy supplies to communities, and public ownership for the grid.

Ecological planning of urban and rural zones: The aim is a radical reduction in the inputs of energy and resources and the outputs of waste and pollution while encouraging locally based supply of basic needs of the citizens. An urban and rural planning built on social justice and equal service to all reducing the need for transport. Promoting public transport systems such as light and high-speed rail systems and bicycles reducing the need for private motor vehicles thus decongesting the roads, improving health and reducing energy consumption.

Education, science and cultural institutions: Re-orientate public research and education to meet the needs of people and the environment, rather than the present bias for developing commercially profitable and proprietary technologies. Research and development should be primarily an open and collaborative endeavour in the common interest of humankind, and eliminate patents on ideas and technology. Fair and just exchange of appropriate technologies, traditional knowledge and indigenous innovative practices, and ideas between countries should be encouraged.

End to militarism and wars: The present fossil fuel-based development model leads to violence, war and military conflict over control of energy, land, water and other natural resources. This is demonstrated by the US-led invasion and occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan, militarisation in across in the globe in regions rich on fossil fuels and other natural resources. Peasants and Indigenous communities are also being violently displaced from their lands to make way for agro-fuel plantations. Trillions of dollars are spent on the military-industrial complex, wasting enormous material and human resources, which should instead be devoted to implementing a sustainable transition.

By taking steps forward we can learn by doing. These steps will help us to convince the broad majority of people that a sustainable transition entails the promise of a more fulfilling and good life. The social, political, economic and environmental fields are closely interrelated. A coherent strategy must therefore address them all, which indeed is the central idea behind the concept of sustainable transition.

One aspect of this concept is the restoration of local communities rather than the global market as a basic social, political and economic unit. Social cohesion, democratic participation, economic accountability and ecological responsibility can only be accomplished by restoring decision making at the lowest appropriate level. This is a basic lesson we have learned from ethnic cultures and local communities.

A community-based approach does not however contradict the need for extensive international cooperation. On the contrary, it will need stronger alliances within and across all borders between direct producers in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and industry. Alliances also built on the strength of gender equality and on recognising and overcoming unjust power relations at all levels. It also includes the need for stronger regional and international cooperative arrangements to manage common and shared resources such as cross boarder water resources. Furthermore, international cooperation will promote the full mutual exchange of ideas, technologies and expertise across all boundaries as well as engage in an open-minded dialogue between different cultures based on mutual respect.

5. Paths to transition

Many people are involved in the practical creation of more sustainable industry, agriculture, forestry and fisheries as well as in the renewable energy sector. These initiatives within the system have furthermore created alliances with other sectors of society, trade unions, consumers, city dwellers, teachers, researchers all of whom are striving towards sustainable ways of life.

United Nations (UN) and Conference of Parties (COP)

We need to address the UN negotiations on climate change and the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The lessons from previous rounds of negotiations are not very promising. Despite the high-profile schemes for concerted action launched first in the 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change of Rio de Janeiro and later in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, results are meagre and the problems have not been solved. Indeed, it has worsened as the principles, targets and the timelines of both the convention and the protocol have made little headway.

The same big corporate interests that are largely responsible for causing the climate crisis appear to have immense influence on climate policies at the national and global level. We strongly oppose this undemocratic influence of corporate lobbyism in the current COP negotiations. Contrary to this, we call on states to put in place an appraisal mechanism for all policies and policy instruments under the UNFCCC, to ensure inclusive and deliberative multi-stakeholder processes that repair existing inequalities whether based on gender, colour, age, disability or other forms of discrimination in the COP negotiations.

We demand that COP15 reach an agreement that will initiate the restoration of the environmental, social and economic balance of planet Earth by means that are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable and equitable, and finally come up with a legally binding treaty.

Our demands

We are raising our voices to the leaders in the UNFCCC to put forward the people’s demands and alternatives.

Phasing out fossil fuel: We call for a clear strategy for dismantling the fossil fuel era within the next 30 years, which must include specific milestones for every five-year period. We demand an immediate cut in GHG emissions of industrialised countries of at least 40% compared to 1990 levels by 2020.

Reparations and compensation for climate debt and crimes: We demand full reparations for Southern countries and those impoverished by Northern states, TNCs and tax-haven institutions. By this, we partly address historical injustices associated to inequitable industrialisation and climate change , originating in the genocide of Indigenous nations, the transatlantic slave trade, the colonial era and invasions. This must be accompanied by an equally clear strategy for compensating impoverished people for the climate and broader ecological debt owed by the enriched. A global and democratic fund should be established to give direct support to the victims of climate change. Developed countries must provide new, mandatory, adequate and reliable financing and patent-free technologies to better adapt to adverse climate impacts and undertake emission reductions. This would allow developing countries to play their part in curbing climate change , while still meeting the needs and aspirations of their people. International financial institutions, donor agencies and trade mechanisms should have no part in reparations.

An immediate global ban on deforestation of primary forests and the parallel initiation of an ambitious global tree-planting program based on native and diverse species in partnership with Indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities. Similarly a ban on large-scale industrialised fishing methods and a return to primarily local and sustainable fishing practices. Finally, a ban on land grabbing by foreign interests and the full acceptance of people’s sovereignty over natural resources.

We express strong opposition to purely market-oriented and technology-centred false and dangerous solutions put forward by many corporations, governments and international financial institutions. These include nuclear energy, agro-fuels, carbon capture and storage, Clean Development Mechanisms, biochar, genetically “climate-readied” crops, geoengineering and reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation as it is the UNFCCC definition (REDD), which only produce new environmental threats, without really solving the climate crisis. Carbon trading and offsetting are also false and unjust instruments because they treat a common planetary resource — the atmosphere — as a commodity that can be owned and traded. So far the system has not proven its merits, and by allowing rich countries to offset their reduction obligations, it has maintained this unjust and unsustainable system.

Equitable tax on carbon emissions: Instead of the regime of tradable emission quotas we demand an equitable tax on carbon emissions. Revenues from this carbon tax should be returned equitably to the people, and a portion should be used to compensate and contribute to finance adaptation and mitigation. This is, however, not a substitute for repayment of already accumulated climate debt. This compensation and funding should be unconditional and free of market mechanisms and financial institutions. Reduction of emissions must be strongly encouraged by a briskly increasing, transparent carbon tax, in addition to direct regulations to drive the phase-out of fossil fuels, while enabling safe, clean and renewable energy. Multilateral institutions and TNCs: Unjust, unsustainable and unaccountable global economic and financial institutions like the WTO, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), regional development banks, donor institutions and trade agreements should be replaced by democratic and equitable institutions functioning in accordance with the United Nations Charter, that respect peoples’ sovereignty over resources and promote solidarity between peoples and nations. A mechanism for strict surveillance and control of the operations of TNCs should be created as well. Finally, we commit ourselves to a full and active involvement in carrying our sustainable transitions of our societies along the lines put forward in this declaration.

6. A global movement for sustainable transition

Irrespective of the outcome of the Copenhagen Summit on Climate Change there is an urgent need to build a global movement of movements dedicated to the long-term task of promoting a sustainable transition of our societies. Contrary to the prevailing power structures, this movement must grow from the bottom and up. What is needed is a broad alliance of environmental movements, social movements, trade unions, farmers and other aligned parties that can work together in everyday political struggle on the local as well as national and international level. Such an alliance entails at the same time the creation of anew mindset and new types of social activisms, and must be capable not only of reacting to unsustainable practices, but also showing by example how anew sustainable economy can indeed function. We, participating peoples, communities and social organisations at Klimaforum09 are all committed to build on the results achieved at this event in the further development of a global movement of movements. This declaration aims to inspire the further development of such a movement by pointing to the general direction in which we choose to move. Together, we can make global transitions to sustainable future. Join us.

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